Science Fiction

Science Fiction

Science Fiction
Science fictionC. Lem. 'Cyberiad.' Fig. D. Mroza.Features N. f. determine its complexity as a phenomenon of art. The specifics of N. f. remains the subject of discussion. The contradictory definitions of it – as a genre, reception, dream literature, scientific and technical foresight – apparently do not cover all aspects of the subject. More adequate is the interpretation of N. f. as a new artistic method, organically combining the principles of scientific and artistic thinking. Its elements arise with the emergence of modern science (the works of T. More, I. Kepler, J. Swift, etc.), and the formation takes place in the work of G. Wells, combining the traditions of scientific, technical and social utopia (J. Berne, W. Morris etc.) with the techniques of a realistic novel and the scientific “thought experiment”. Further development of N. f. receives from K. Chapek, A.N. Tolstoy, O. Stapeldon and other science fiction writers of the 20-30s. 20 century In the era of the scientific and technological revolution N. f. becomes a mass phenomenon of art, the most widely represented in prose, however, the development of world N. f. occurs unevenly and is concentrated only in a number of countries. In the USA, N. f. in the 20s. developed along the lines of scientific and technological foresight (H. Gernsbek) and space adventures (E. Smith, E. Hamilton, E. Burroughs). The best works of post-war N. f. (preceded in the 30s by the work of D. Campbell) rose to serious social criticism and philosophical generalizations (R. Bradbury, W. Tenn, F. Paul and S. Kornblat, R. Heinlein, R. Sheckley, K. Vonnegut and etc.), making, as it were, a parallel to the literature of critical realism, and so on. political romance warning. However, in the late 60s and early 70s. this direction is supplanted by the “new wave” (S. Dileni, R. Zhelyazny), gravitating to modernist form-creation and the fantastic reification of the “inner space” of the human psyche. In English N. f. Before World War II, 1939–45, the most significant were the works of G. Wells, A. Conan Doyle, Stapeldon (The Last and First People, The Creator of Stars), as well as O. Huxley, whose gloomy works (The Cheeky New World ”And others) had a noticeable effect on Western dystopia. Postwar N. f. survived the rise of the 40-50s. (large-scale social works of D. Wyndham, scientific and technical utopias of A. Clark, etc.) and the onset of the “new wave” (D. Bollard, B. Oldiss). Development of the original post-war N. f. in Japan (S. Komatsu, R. Mitsuse, S. Hoshi) occurs in the fight against the influence of American N. f. The largest representative of the original Japanese N. f. is the realist writer Kobo Abe (“The Fourth Ice Age” and others). Pre-war N. f. in France (J. Tuduz, V. Roni Sr.) continued the tradition of J. Verne – in the postwar years, interest in socio-philosophical topics (A. Vercors, R. Merle) and the “new wave” (N. Enneber and others. ). In modern mass production in the West, entertainment literature (“space opera”, Comics, etc.) prevails, often identified with N. f. by the similarity of external attributes. This pseudoscientific fiction usually expresses philistine ideas and objectively serves the propaganda of bourgeois ideology.

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